Study for the Month December 2012
The Gradual Poisoning of the Central Nervous System by Caffeine
Whole Gospel Ministries
CAFFEINE is an alkaloid present in coffee and tea. It is a central nervous stimulant and a diuretic. The amount of caffeine received when coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and cola drinks are ingested varies with respect to the strength of the preparation of brewed coffee or tea as well as the size of the container used for dispensing these beverages. A careful investigation of home-prepared coffee and tea in the Toronto, Canada area indicated the range of caffeine in percolated coffee was 195-1170mg./ml; for instant coffee, 102-554; for decaffeinated instant coffee 2-8; and for tea 43-400. The caffeine in cola drinks has been found to range from 40 to 164 mg./ml.- Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Edition 15.
The American Heritage Dictionary says: “Many alkaloids, such as nicotine, quinine, cocaine, and morphine, are known for their poisonous or medicinal properties.” WiseGEEK on the internet says: “Though their effects may vary from medicinal to poisonous, all alkaloids cause a physiological effect on the human body . . . Cocaine and caffeine are two-plant based alkaloids believed to be toxic in their effects.”
Oracle ThinkQuest says: “The nervous system is a very complex system in the body. It has many, many parts. It is divided into two main systems, the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The spinal cord and the brain make up the CNS. Its main job is to get the info from the body and send out instructions. The PNS is made up of all the nerves and the wiring. This system sends the messages from the brain to the rest of the body.”
We bemoan the drug culture that is destroying relationships, homes, neighborhoods and the very fabric of society and the health of the nations where this modern plague thrives, yet little realize that the caffeine found in the ever popular beverages of coffee, tea, and lately, so-called “energy drinks” is actually a very dangerous drug. Caffeine is also found in chocolates. How many claiming to be preparing for Christ’s second coming are still enslaved to this health and mind destroying habit?
Ralph Golan, M.D., in his widely acclaimed book, Optimal Wellness that all households should have, says: “Approximately 400 million cups of coffee are consumed daily in the world, 16 pounds per person per year in the United States alone.”- p. 66. [This is an old statistic; check latest stats below]. Abundant quantities of caffeine are found elsewhere in black tea, soft drinks, chocolate, cocoa, and numerous prescription and over-the-counter medications.” –p. 66.
Now check out these latest staggering statistics on Coffee-Statistics.com in its Statistics Report 2012 Edition, “Did you know?
(1) Coffee shops make up the fastest growing part of the restaurant business, checking in with a 7% annual growth rate!
(2) World Coffee production is estimated at 110-120 million bags per year.
(3) 14 billion espresso coffees are consumed each year in Italy, reaching over 200,000 bars, and still growing.
(4) Americans consume 400 million cups of coffee per day, or an equivalent of 146, 000, 000, 000 (146 billion) cups of coffee per year; making the United States the LEADING CONSUMER of coffee in the world.
(5) Japan ranks third in the world coffee consumption.
(6) Coffee represents 75% of all the caffeine consumed in the U.S.”
We will here simulate an interview with Dr. Golan based on his book. The page/s are provided from which his “answers” are found. You may read them for yourself.
NF: Because of the powerful advertising and marketing strategies that are so successful we see more and more children and youth downing cups of coffee or cans of “energy drinks’ supercharged with caffeine and other so-called natural stimulants in the morning, and throughout the day, even at bedtime. What’s in caffeine in itself that makes it so addictive? What does it do to the body?
Dr. Golan: “Caffeine produces a feeling of energy, alertness, and well-being through its direct effect on the nervous system and through stimulation of the adrenal glands.* Both cortisol and adrenaline from the adrenal glands elevate blood sugar levels, which in turn stimulate the central nervous system. Because of its energizing effect, caffeine can allow an individual to continue with life-style habits that are causing chronic fatigue.”- Optimal Wellness, pp. 66, 67.
NF: Tell us more about the hidden dangers beyond obvious dependence that the big moguls of the coffee industry never tell us.
Dr. Golan: “Beneath the buzz of energy and alertness, however, the nervous system and adrenal glands continue to tire. Such use of caffeine is a time bomb. It gradually creates a need for more and more as the liver becomes conditioned to metabolizing caffeine more quickly while the body becomes increasingly tired. One or two cups of coffee may no longer deliver the same punch. Coffee drinkers may soon find themselves ingesting toxic doses of the substance to keep getting the same lift. Sooner or later, this means they will develop a number of adverse symptoms and conditions.” – Ibid.
Are there any specific forms of cancer that have been traced to caffeine addiction?
Dr. Golan: “There has been a suggested relationship between caffeine and cancers of the pancreas, prostate, and bladder.” – Ibid.
NF: What are the symptoms, and diseases, directly associated with caffeine toxicity?
Dr. Golan: “Symptoms of Caffeine Toxicity” are: Fatigue, headaches, depression, insomnia, decreased ability to cope [with stressful situations], anxiety, nervousness, irritability, muscle tremors, gastritis and ulcers, hypertension, increased serum cholesterol, heart rhythm disturbances, heart attack, hypoglycemia [which usually precedes Type II Diabetes], rectal pain and itching, diarrhea, cystitis, diuretic action, and urinary loss of calcium, magnesium, biotin, inositol, and other vital nutrients.” (emphasis supplied) – p. 67.
NOTE : If you have a caffeine habit and are currently experiencing any of these symptoms the best thing to do is to immediately begin a withdrawal program.
NF: Are there other gender-specific symptoms, adverse effects, and diseases associated with caffeine toxicity?
Dr. Golan: For women: “Fibrocystic breast disease, premenstrual syndrome, birth defects, infertility, still birth, prematurity, and osteoporosis.” For men: “Prostatitis.” “There has also been a suggested relationship between caffeine and cancers of the pancreas, prostate and bladder.”- p. 67.
NF: What about the occasional coffee-drinking?
Dr. Golan: “Some people enjoy coffee for the taste, just a cup a day or less. They never feel the need to drink more, they do not experience any of the adverse effects of caffeine use, and they do not use caffeine to boost their energy. This kind of use seems far less hazardous.” . . . . . However, “given the possible long-term consequences of caffeine use, it might be reasonable to assume that the lower the daily dose, the less likely the incidence of long-term damage.”- Ibid.
NF: Does that mean that when an occasional coffee-drinker begins to feel the need of caffeine in any form to start his morning, or boost his energy that he no longer is an occasional coffee-drinker but a caffeine-dependent?
You be the judge!
NF: What about the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in growing and processing the coffee beans?
Dr. Golan: “Knowing also that coffee beans come from countries where pesticides and herbicides considered too toxic to be sold in the United States are used, one can only wonder if part of the risk of long-term damage stems from the residues of these man-made carcinogens.”- p. 67.
NF: What about decaffeinated coffee?
Dr. Golan: “The same question may be raised about the decaffeinating solvents TCE (trichloroethylene, recently banned!) and methylene chloride. If regular use is a must for you (unless you are pregnant or caffeine-addicted), a small daily amount might be safe, although it is best to use organic coffee or organic/water-processed decaffeinated brews.”- Ibid.
NF: You said earlier that caffeine directly affects the nervous system through the stimulation of the adrenal glands. Tell us more about the role that these glands perform in our body and their impact upon our physical and mental health.
Dr. Golan: “As our body’s primary shock absorber, the adrenal glands determine our response to stress.” “It is our adrenal glands that buffer stress and enable us to stand up to life’s onslaughts. These glands give us the capacity to perform and to adapt flexibly to the demands of every day. It is also our adrenals that enable us to go beyond our usual limits of endurance when needed, and help us recover in a reasonable amount of time.”
NF: What are the most common adrenal stressors? Are there those that are controllable and non-controllable?
Dr. Golan: “Adrenals: Stress and Symptoms: Trigger emotions such as anger, fear, worry, anxiety, and guilt, depression, overwork (physical or mental strain), late sleeping hours, insufficient sleep, chronic, severe, or prolonged infections, surgery, trauma/ injury, excessive exercise, temperature extremes, toxic exposure, chronic inflammation, chronic pain, chronic illness, chronic/ severe allergies, light cycle disruption (awake at night, asleep during the day).” – p. 190.
NOTE: Necessary surgery, trauma, and non-self inflicted injuries are some factors that may be uncontrollable to a large extent, but the rest depends largely on the life-styles we choose to live!
NF: What are the symptoms associated with and consequences of adrenal dysfunction?
Dr. Golan: (Listed as): Excessive fatigue, weakness, nervousness/irritability, mental depression, apprehension problems, inability to concentrate, moments of confusion, poor memory, feelings of frustration, light-headedness, dizziness that occurs upon standing, low blood pressure, insomnia, premenstrual tension, craving for sweets, headaches, alcohol intolerance, sternomastoid/trapezius pain and spasms (muscles in area of upper back/neck shoulders), hypoglycemia, excessive hunger, epigastric discomfort, dyspepsia (indigestion), alternate diarrhea and constipation, palpitation, poor resistance to infections, food and/or inhalant allergies, dry and thin skin, scanty perspiration, tenderness in adrenal area, low body temperature, unexplained hair loss, difficulty building muscle, difficulty gaining weight, tendency to inflammation, increased susceptibility to cancer, increased susceptibility to osteoporosis, increased susceptibility to autoimmune hepatitis and other autoimmune diseases.” – Ibid.
NF: Where are the adrenal glands found? With such great impact on our overall energy levels, health, and quality of life itself, they must be large organs, shouldn’t they?
Dr. Golan: “The adrenal glands, each approximately the size of your thumb, sit on top of the kidneys. Their position is on each side of the spine, approximately at the level of the lower ribs. The adrenal cortex is central to this discussion. It is the part of the gland that synthesizes a number of hormones from cholesterol, the two very important ones being cortisol and DHEA (dehydroepiandroesterone). The adrenal medulla is the part of the gland that secretes adrenalin [the “emergency hormone”]. Cortisone is akin to the drug cortisone (Prednisone, Prednisolone, etc), and although cortisone has developed an unfavorable reputation for its well-known side-effects, our well-being depends on the adrenal’s ability to produce adequate amounts of cortisol. DHEA is also essential.”- p. 199.
NF: Please explain a little bit more on the functions of cortisol—one of the most important hormones synthesized in the adrenal cortex.
Dr. Golan: “Functions of Cortisol are: mobilizes and increases amino acids, the building blocks of protein, in the blood and liver. It stimulates the liver to convert amino acids to glucose, a primary fuel for energy production. It stimulates and increases glycogen in the liver. Glycogen is a storage form of glucose. It mobilizes and increases fatty acids in the blood (from fat cells) to be used as fuel for energy production. It counters inflammation and allergies. It prevents the loss of sodium in urine and thus helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure. It maintains resistance to stress (infections, physical trauma, temperature extremes, emotional trauma, etc.). It maintains personality and emotional stability.”- p. 200.
“However, in excess, cortisol does the following things, too. It diminishes glucose utilization by the cell and increases blood sugar levels. It decreases protein synthesis, and increase protein breakdown, which can lead to muscle wasting and osteoporosis. It causes shrinking of the lymphatic tissue, diminishes lymphocyte numbers and functions, and lessens secretory antibody production. This immune system suppression may lead to increased susceptibility to allergies, infections, and cancer.” – Ibid, Dr. Robert Golan.
Dr. Golan already discussed the physical dangers above but we will consider more and focus on its effects on the moral and spiritual although all have to do with the development of character and a fitting-up for eternal life and heaven–the work of sanctification.
What the Spirit of Prophecy Says
In the Comprehensive Index to the Writings of Ellen G. White, Book A-F, under the title “Coffee,” and sub-titles, “Coffee-drinkers,” and “Coffee-drinking, pp. 640-642, are five sub-sections, namely: 1. Ill effects of (general) 2. Ill effects of (mental) 3. Ill effects of (moral and spiritual) 4. Ill effects of (physical) 5. Miscellaneous.
I am here printing them out for your convenience so that you may do your own reading and verification of these counsels.
These things are clear at the outset (emphasis mine):
Caffeine (in coffee, soda, etc) is a health-destroying narcotic. CD 63, 281, 402, 430, 490.
“Let none who profess godliness regard with indifference the health of the body, that intemperance is no sin and will not affect their spirituality. A close sympathy exists between the physical and the moral nature. The standard of virtue is elevated or degraded by the physical habits. Excessive eating of the best of food will produce a morbid condition of the moral feelings. And if the food is not the most healthful, the effects will still be more injurious. Any habit which does not promote healthful action in the human system, degrades the higher and nobler faculties. Wrong habits of eating and drinking leads to errors in thought and action. Indulgence of appetite strengthens the animal propensities, giving them the ascendancy over the mental and spiritual powers.
“Abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul’ is the language of the apostle Peter [1 Pet. 2: 11]. Many regard this warning as applicable only to the licentious; but it has a broader meaning. It guards against every injurious gratification of appetite or passion. It is a most forcible warning against the use of such stimulants and narcotics as tea, coffee, tobacco, alcohol or morphine [or any of the “recreational drugs” plaguing America and the nations in these last days!]. These indulgences may well be classed among the lusts that exert a pernicious influence upon moral character. The earlier these hurtful habits are formed, the more firmly they will hold their victim in slavery to lust, and the more certainly will they lower the standard of morality.” CD 63.
It contains poisons. (See CD 420-1; Te 750
“The stimulating diet and drink of this day [written Feb. 21. 1888, Review & Herald article] are not conducive to the best state of health. Tea, coffee, are all stimulating and contain poisons. They are not only unnecessary, and harmful and should be discarded if we would add knowledge to temperance [see 1 Pet. 1: 6, 1-12].
Skin becomes sallow and assumes a lifeless appearance.
“Tea [all caffeinated teas] is poisonous to the system. Christians should let it alone. The influence of coffee is in a degree the same as tea, but the effect on the system is still worse. Its influence is exciting, and just in the degree it elevates above par, it will exhaust and bring prostration below par. Tea and coffee drinker carry the marks upon their faces. The skin become sallow [pale, reddish-yellow color, suggesting sickness, Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1942, Fifth Edition, 1942}, and assume a lifeless appearance. The glow of health is not seen in the countenance.”
Loosens tongues, promotes wicked work of talking against others, gossip, and scandal
“When these tea and coffee users meet together for social entertainment, the effects of their pernicious habit are manifest. All partake freely of the favorite beverages, and as the stimulating influence is felt, their tongues are loosened, and they begin the wicked work of talking against others. Their words are not few and well-chosen. The tidbits of gossip are passed around, too often the poison of scandal as well. These thoughtless gossipers forget that they have a witness. An Unseen Watcher is writing their words in the books of heaven. All these unkind criticisms, these exaggerated reports, these envious feelings, expressed under the excitement of cup of tea [or coffee], Jesus registers as against Himself. ‘Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me.’ [Matt. 25: 40].”
The remnant church should discard it.
“It is for their own good that the Lord counsels the remnant church to discard the use of flesh meat, tea and coffee, and other harmful foods. There are plenty of other things on which we can subsist that are wholesome and good.” (MS 71, 1908) CD 381.
Interferes with divine grace and worshipping God in spirit and in truth
R & H Jan. 28, 1881: “Tea and coffee, as well as tobacco, have an injurious effect upon the system. Tea is intoxicating; though less in degree, its effect is the same in character as that of spirituous liquors. Coffee has a greater tendency to becloud the intellect and benumb the energies. It is not so powerful as tobacco, but is similar in its effects. The arguments brought against tobacco may also be urged against the use of tea and coffee.
“Those who are in the habit of using tea, coffee, and tobacco, opium, or spirituous liquors, cannot worship God when they are deprived of the accustomed indulgence. Let them, while deprived of these stimulants, engage the worship of God, and divine grace would be powerless to animate, enliven, or spiritualize their prayers or testimonies. These professed Christians should consider the means of their enjoyment. It is from above, or from beneath?” –R & H Jan. 28, 1881.
A work to be done before His people can stand before Him as perfected people
“Those who have received instruction regarding the evils of the use of flesh foods, tea, and coffee, and rich and unhealthful food preparations, and are determined to make a covenant with God by sacrifice, will not continue to indulge their appetite for food that they know to be unhealthful. God demands that the appetite be cleansed, and that self-denial be practiced in regard to those things which are not good. This is a work that will have to be done before His people can stand before Him a perfected people. [see 2 Cor. 7: 1].” 9T 153, 153 (1909)
Ill Effects of (Physical):
Appetite fostered for intoxicating liquor (CD 430), and for stronger stimulants and tobacco (CD 429-30; CH 85);
Development of physical powers hindered;
Body organs injured (CD 402, 430; MM 274);
Digestive organs injured (CH 463);
Stomach ruined (CD 411);
Stomach nerves excited (MH 326; CD 424);
Disease of every kind (CD 421; MM 222);
Dyspepsia or indigestion (CH 111-2; CD 149);
Energies benumbed more than by tea (CD 426; SL 232);
Headaches (MH 326; CD 324);
Heart action increased [palpitations, arrthymia] (MH 326; CD 424);
Indigestion [that lead to acid reflux disease] (Ed 203; MH 326; CD 424);
Irritability (Te 81);
Nerve irritant (CD 421-2);
Nerves shattered (CD 421-2);
Nerves trembling (CD 244);
Nervous excitement instead of strength (CG 403; MH 326; CD 424);
Nervousness (Te 81);
Nervous system borrowing power from future resources (CG 403);
System given short-lived energy (MH 326;
Numbness (Te 81); physical powers ruined (MM 222);
Skin sallow and lifeless in appearance (CH 111-2; CD 149)
Wearing away life’s forces (CD 421-2);
Man’s spark of vitality extinguished (CD 423);
Worse than tea (CD 421);
Not so powerful as tobacco (CD 426)
Ill Effects of (Mental):
Brain activity greatly, and permanently lessened (CH 441; CD 421);
Brain benumbed, injured (4T 365; CD 402, 430);
Brain irritation (MH 326; CD 425);
Imagination made more vivid (CG 403; MH 326; CD 424);
Intellect aroused (MH 326);
Intellect temporarily invigorated (CD 427; CH 124);
Intellect beclouded (CD 426; SL 32);
Mental degeneracy (CH 49; Te 174);
Mental development hindered (CD 402, 430);
Mental feebleness (CD 421-2);
Mental power ruined (CD 421; MM 22);
Mind excited to unwonted action (CD 421; CH 441)
Ill Effects (Moral and Spiritual):
Backsliding (Te 80);
Development of spiritual powers hindered (CD 402, 430; MM 274);
Impatience (CD 421-2: CH 442);
Moral power ruined (MM 222);
Sense of sacred things perverted (CD 428-9);
Soul’s finer sensibilities benumbed (3SG 1116);
Tongues loosened (CD 423; Te 79);
Worship of God hindered (CD 426)
Argument against tobacco may be urged against caffeine (CD 426; SL 32);
Is called a darling luxury (4T 599; CW 132);
Do not serve (CD 431);
Children should not drink ( CD 234);
It is a health-destroying beverage (CD 431);
Hurtful indulgence (CH 441; CD 428-9);
An idol cherished (CD 425; Te 81);
Our medical institutions should not serve (CD 414);
Ministers should abstain (4T 417; CD 141);
Money that should go to God’s cause and treasury, are more than wasted on coffee (EW 121-2; CD 425, 402, 422, 430);
Difficult to break as the liquor habit (CD 422; CH 442);
It is a sin (CD 425; Te 80);
Gratifies perverted appetite (CD 425);
Tendency to deal in gossip and scandal (Te 79);
Wars against the laws of life and health (EV 266; Te 104).
Seventh-day Adventists are to bear a positive testimony against this pernicious habit (CD 402, 430; Te 79; MM 274).
Sanitariums [our hospitals today] should not serve (CD 283), except in special cases (CD 294); patients who must be served, should receive it in their rooms (CD 294).
Now, let us print out some these serious counsels from the servant of God:
(From Counsels on Diet and Foods, pp. 430, 431. All emphasis mine):
“In relation to tea, coffee, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, the only safe course is to touch not, taste not, and handle not [Col. 2: 21]. The tendency of tea, coffee, and similar drinks is in the same direction as that of alcoholic liquor and tobacco, and in some cases the habit is as difficult to break as it is for the drunkard to give up intoxicants. Those who attempt to leave off these stimulants will for a time feel a loss, and will suffer without them. But by persistence they will overcome the craving and cease to feel the lack. Nature may require a little time to recover from the abuse that she has suffered; but give her a chance; and she will again rally, and perform her work nobly and well. (Ministry of Healing, 335, written 1905)
“Satan is corrupting minds and destroying souls through his subtle temptations. Will our people see and feel the sin of indulged appetite? Will they discard tea, coffee, flesh meats, and all stimulating food, and devote the means expended for those hurtful indulgences to spreading the truth?. . . . Tea and coffee are fostering the appetite which is developing for stronger stimulants, as tobacco and liquor. (3T 569, written 1875)
“Concerning flesh meat we can all say, Let it alone. And all should bear a close testimony against tea and coffee, never using them. They are narcotics, injurious alike to the brain and to the other organs of the body . . . . Let the members of our churches deny every selfish appetite. Every penny expended for tea, coffee, and flesh meat is worse than wasted; for these things hinder the best development of the physical, mental, and spiritual powers.” (Letter 135, 1902).
“Some think that they cannot reform, that health would be sacrificed should they attempt to leave the use of tea, [coffee], tobacco, and flesh meats. This is the suggestion of Satan. It is these hurtful stimulants that are surely undermining the constitution and preparing the system for acute diseases, by impairing nature’s fine machinery and battering down her fortifications, erected against disease and premature decay. . . .
“The use of unnatural stimulants is destructive to health, and has benumbing influence upon the brain, making it impossible to appreciate eternal things. Those who cherish these idols cannot rightly value the salvation which Christ has wrought out for them by a life of self-denial, continual suffering and reproach, and by finally yielding His own sinless life to save perishing man from death.” (Testimonies, Vol. 1, pp. 548, 549, written 1867).
“Satan is taking the world captive through the use of liquor and tobacco, tea and coffee. The God-given mind which should be kept clear, is perverted by the use of narcotics. The brain is no longer able to distinguish correctly.”- Ev 529; Te 17.
Thus it is self-deception and going against better judgment to agree with those who say that “what you don’t know won’t hurt you.” Try saying that to those who have been diagnosed with last-stage cancer, or had a heart attack or stroke from diabetic complications caused by presumptuously and recklessly indulging in self-gratification in an unhealthy lifestyle. The doctrine “once-saved-always saved” leads countless to excuse and justify “defiling the temple of God and the Holy Spirit.” 1 Cor. 3: 16, 17; 6: 19, 20. Inspiration says continuance in self-indulgences is taking a suicidal course (CD 131).
Contrary to popular belief, and as necessary it is in the fight against all forms of life-threatening disease especially in these last days, “early detection” is not really our “best protection.’ It is merely the second line of defense where damage has already occurred. Our very best protection is informed proactive prevention. The popular idea of moderation or temperance is “a little of everything won’t hurt.” But Biblical temperance is properly defined as:
“True temperance teaches us to dispense entirely with everything hurtful, and to use judiciously that which is healthful. There are few who realize as they should how much their habits of diet have to do with their health, their character, their usefulness in this world, and their eternal destiny.” (Patriarchs & Prophets, p. 562).
Start a healthy lifestyle immediately following Weimar College’s NEWS TART Program. N—nutrition; E –exercise; W—water (not soda, coffee, or regular tea); S- sunshine; A- air (deep breathing of cleanest air possible; R – rest (proper rest invigorates and heals, particularly the divine Sabbath rest), and T—Trust in God.
NOTE: You may choose other health and fitness programs that fit your lifestyle.
This involves three things: Pray, Believe, and Act. When we pray we must have faith that God answers prayers but oftentimes half of God’s answer to our prayers returns to the question: ‘What are you doing with your body, mind, time, faculties, with the life I loaned to you? The will is the governing power in the nature of man. Exercise that will in making the right choices which may difficult at the start but becomes easier in time until it becomes a habit. This is how character is formed—by the little and repetitive choices we make, right or wrong. We simply reap what we sow. Gal. 6:7-9.
I read recently that “you get what you demand and you encourage what you tolerate.” So “anything less than full-capacity effort is not going to cut it.”
Strive to do your best by God’s enabling grace
“Then one said to Him (Jesus), Lord, are there few that be saved? And He said unto them, strive to enter in at strait: for many, I say unto you, many will seek to enter in, and shall not be able.” Luke 13: 23, 24, K.J.V.
One of Christ’s last conditional promises in the Bible is: “He that overcometh shall inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he shall be My son.” Rev. 21: 7. Are we willing to strive to overcome “even as Christ overcame”? Rev. 3: 21.
Key To Abbreviations:
CD – Counsels on Diets and Foods
CG – Child Guidance
CH- Counsels on Health
Ed – Education
Ev – Evangelism
MH – Ministry of Healing
MM – Medical Ministry
SL- Sanctified Life
Te – Temperance
1T – Testimonies for the Church, Vol. I.
3T – Testimonies for the Church, Vol. 2